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Agriculture is the main pillar of the Tanzanian economy, accounting for roughly one-third of the GDP. About three-quarters of the population lives in rural areas with virtually all people involved in agriculture. The main food crops are maize, sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, beans, cassava, potatoes, and bananas, with the main cash crops being cashew nuts, coffee, cotton, sisal, tea and tobacco, contributing significantly to foreign exchange earnings. Challenges on the agriculture include lack of agricultural technology, droughts, floods, and agriculture temperature shocks.

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